MONTEMORELOS, MEX.- The Museo Histórico Valle Del Pilón Abp
is hosting the exhibition "Reencuentro Novohispano" consisting of works from the Collection of Javier Guidi Kawas. The exhibition is on view through March 2020.
In the Middle Ages despite the economic depression that the European feudal states lived in, the noble class continued to demand luxury goods and spices from the East, such as silk or pepper, valuable products from Asia and that arrived at the Italian coasts through means that were less expensive than those of the traditional Silk Route. Genoa and Venice, examples of these new commercial emporiums, extended their dominion to islands and ports along the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea, forging authentic overseas empires in Palestine, Byzantium and Egypt, on Caravels, sailing vessels, navigated by the likes of Fernando de Magallanes, (1480 Portugal - 1521 Philippines), and Christopher Columbus, (c. 1436-1451 unknown where- 1506 Spain) amongst many others.
The Conquest of New Spain
On February 10, 1519, a fleet consisting of 11 ships laden with infantrymen, horsemen, crossbowmen, sailors, Indians, horses, bronze cannons and falcons among many other people and items left the coasts of Cuba on route to Mexico, wherein on March 15th, 1519, Hernán Cortés was begifted a slave (Malintzin)whom he named Marina by chief Tabscoob. Shortly after, on July 7th, 1520, the Battle of Otumba between Cortés and Cuitláhuac corresponding to the Conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlán took place. Malintzin, it was later discovered, spoke Nahuatl for which Cortés made her an interpreter. Shortly after the military actions Hernán Cortés ordered the demolition of Mexico-Tenochtitlan and the Spaniards made of Mexico City the capital of a construction that they called New Spain.
Evangelization and Education
Missionary work carried out by the Franciscans made the rapid evangelization of the Indians possible, and in 1540 the ancient College of San Nicolas Obispo was built under the direction f Don Vasco de Quiroga in honor of Nicolas, Patron Bishop of Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Spain, where many priests were formed. Prior to that in December 1531, the image of the Virgen of Guadalupe appeared before Juan Diego, where she asked him to see to it that a house of worship be built for her veneration upon the hill of Tepeyac.
Art and Tradition
One result of the influence of European art in America, and that was common for both the indigenous and the Spanish who lived here; is the artistic fusion that occurs between pre-Columbian art and European art referred to as Colonial. This is not only a mixture of races, but a cultural one. Whereas painting is concerned, ecclesiastical works are evidently the most important, not only because of their dimensions but because they have greater support from powerful economic classes. The most important artists within the Novohispanic barroque movement of the 17th and 18th centuries are noted for the inclusion of images of angels with attributes of passion, which are called Passionary Angels.
In Europe there were many Protestant reforms protesting the authority of the Papacy and the Catholic Church for which in England Henry VIII ultimately separated papal authority from his kingdom and made himself the head of the Anglican Church. New Spain was fundamentally Catholic because Spain acted so severely in its missionary work, and as a result Protestant evangelization occurred mainly with the new European settlers who came to what is the United States. Throughout the time of Spanish domination in America, the relationships with European states were based on diplomacy though disagreements regarding successions to European thrones were resolved by war.
Safety and Work
After the conquest of Mexico and the Philippines in the 16th century, Spain extended its domain globally and established a maritime route from China to the port of Manilla and onto Acapulco, for which the 17th century was characterized by a time of constant peace in New Spain with the exception of piracy. Piracy was constant during the Spanish reign, and the Spanish were forced to build forts in order to prevent the looting that would last several days on end. These pirates were supported by monarchies like England and Holland. At that time Spains economic policy was characterized by obstructing New Spains progress by complicating issues regarding ownership of land, agriculture mining, livestock, industry and trade.
Consolidation and Integration
The latter half of the 18th century is characterized by the conquest of what is called the Seno Mexicano, the remote northern area of New Spain which was where rebellious natives who resisted Spanish domination fled to, led by Col. Don José de Escandón y Helguera, who is currently known as a fundamental agent in the introduction of cattle farming in Texas and in the development of cowboy culture. The Act of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the document by which the Mexican Empire declared its independence from the Spanish Empire. The founding document of the Mexican State was drafted at the National Palace of Mexico City on September 28, 1821 by Juan José Espinosa de los Monteros, secretary of the Supreme Provisional Governing Council.