To wake up to one of these things is pretty special to have a Leonardo at home, said Joe Kennedy, director of contemporary art dealership Unit London, enthusing recently about an elaborately framed LED screen with a digital replica of Leonardo da Vincis Portrait of a Musician glowing on his gallery wall. The original was 800 miles away in the Ambrosiana museum in Milan.
The Leonardo was one of six ultra-high-resolution copies of famous paintings from across the centuries in Units moodily lit Eternalizing Art History exhibition, which closed Saturday. The show was the latest attempt by cash-poor museums to generate money by selling non-fungible tokens, or NFTs. Last year, NFTs, usually pegged to the high-flying but volatile ethereum cryptocurrency, took the market for art and collectibles by storm, with sales estimated in the tens of billions.
Pandemic-related lockdowns and reprioritized government spending have put the worlds public museums under financial pressure. Yet so far, despite the formidable sales figures being achieved by NFTs, few institutions have explored this digital asset as a fundraising mechanism.
Unit and its Florence-based technology partner Cinello forged licensing agreements with several prominent Italian museums to create a hybrid offering of limited-edition LED reproductions in period-style wooden frames, each accompanied by a unique NFT.
Same-size digital versions of the Leonardo portrait, Caravaggios Bowl of Fruit (also in the Ambrosiana) and Raphaels Madonna of the Goldfinch (in the Uffizi in Florence) were offered in editions of nine, ranging in price from 100,000 to 500,000 euros per piece (around $110,000 to $550,000). Fifty percent of sales proceeds went back to the licensing museums.
By Friday, after the show had closed, seven sales had been confirmed, up to 250,000 euros, which included at least one of the Leonardo NFTs.
The collaboration between Unit and the Italian museums follows earlier attempts by other European institutions to get on the NFT bandwagon. Among those are the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg, Russia, which in September held an auction of NFT replicas of five of its best-known paintings that raised $444,000.
The Belvedere museum in Vienna has fractionalized the digitized image of Gustav Klimts The Kiss into a one-off drop of 10,000 NFTs. This was released Feb. 14, Valentines Day, priced at 0.65 ethereum, or 1,850 euros, each. Earlier this week, Irene Jaeger, a media relations officer at the Austrian museum, said around 2,400 of the Klimt NFTs had been sold, generating about 4.3 million euros.
Producing NFTs uses a lot of energy, particularly on the ethereum blockchain. According to one estimate, the computing power required to mint one NFT generates the same amount of greenhouse gas as a 500-mile journey in a gasoline-powered car. Non-fungible tokens can make money for a museum, but they also have the potential to create image-damaging environmental issues.
A more eco-friendly offering of 50 NFTs based on a William Blake print, individually priced at 999 units of the green cryptocurrency tezos (about $3,290 at current values), has so far attracted eight sales for the Whitworth museum in Manchester, England, since its release in July, according to Bernardine Brocker Wieder, chief executive of Vastari, the projects technical partner.
Environmental issues are one reason that barely a dozen museums have so far experimented with NFTs as an alternative revenue stream. The instability and opacity of unregulated cryptocurrencies, the difficulty of finding trusted tech partners, and the cost of such partnerships are also cited by museum professionals as reasons for hesitancy.
American museums are nonprofit organizations that work in the public trust, said Tina Rivers Ryan, a curator specializing in digital art at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York. This means that legally and morally they are bound to move slowly.
Ryan added, however, that many American museums are having internal discussions about how NFTs might be incorporated into their mission.
The market is changing so rapidly, she said. There are legal, environmental and other ramifications that have to be thought about very carefully.
One institution that has wasted no time embracing NFTs as a fundraising tool is the British Museum in London. Chaired by George Osborne, a former British finance minister, the museum entered into an exclusive five-year partnership in September with ethereum-based NFT platform LaCollection. The museum has since made several token drops, in editions varying in size from two to 10,000, using digital copies of works by Katsushika Hokusai and J.M.W. Turner. Prices ranged from $500 to $40,000.
Aware of the environmental sensitivity of large-scale token drops, LaCollection said on its website that for each minted NFT, we plant a tree that more than offsets the activitys carbon footprint.
Last month, sales reached seven figures, Sophie Reid, spokeswoman for the project, said in an email. The British Museum itself declined to comment.
Suse Anderson, an assistant professor of museum studies at George Washington University, said she was skeptical about museums becoming involved in the mania for NFTs.
It risks being a gimmick rather than focusing on the work itself. We should be making resources as available to the public as we can, Anderson said.
Yet she acknowledged that there is currently a market for NFTs from museums.
It may not last long, but this is a moment where there is a possibility for fundraising and visibility, she said.
At the moment, the market is relatively small. Publicly funded galleries are wary of cryptocurrencies, and, for those immersed in that world, digitalized old art doesnt have the speculative cool of native NFTs, like CryptoPunks or Bored Apes, which can sell for millions. As yet, no museum NFTs have achieved attention-grabbing profits on resale platforms like OpenSea.
But what if the reproduction of a masterpiece is so good it looks just like the original, hanging in a beautiful frame on a wall? Dont those have the potential to sell for millions or at least hundreds of thousands?
On the final day of the Unit Eternalizing Art History show, Eve Smith, a lawyer, seemed impressed.
This is the second time Ive been. I was completely astonished, said Smith, gazing at a backlit ultra-high-resolution digital copy of Francesco Hayezs 1896 painting of embracing lovers, The Kiss, in the Pinacoteca Brera museum in Milan.
It looks like satin. It looks like theres texture in what youre looking at, but there isnt, Smith said. Will I still want to go to the Brera? Of course.
But would she be prepared to pay Unit Londons asking price of 180,000 euros to own one of the edition of nine, plus its NFT?
It depends how much you like repro, Smith said.
This article originally appeared in The New York Times