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Architecture is one of mankind's oldest works. Every period in the formation of society is defined by its manner, with key features, socio-political philosophy, and the view of a particular period of history.
Modern architecture and its styles were formed under the influence of architectural styles and currents that preceded the modern era. Through modern styles in architecture can understand the essence of the present time, to comprehend the existing concepts of beauty, harmony, aesthetics, and proportionality.
The style of architecture can be defined as certain common characteristics inherent in buildings in a certain period.
Modern is a style of architecture, the name of which varies in different countries. Modern in England, Secession in Austria, Jugendstil in Germany, Art Nouveau in France, etc. It is a protest against the imitation of historic houses, something progressive. For buildings in the Modern style use materials such as high-quality steel, concrete, glass, plastic. Wood and stone were additionally used. This made it possible to give building systems free and unusual, also mythical forms.
Art Nouveau building forms are asymmetrical. Buildings are three-dimensional and have no straight lines. But despite everything being too decorated, at times even excessively. Facades of buildings were decorated with random patterns of different shapes. Art Nouveau buildings are beautiful, although at the same time highly functional.
During modernism the construction of high-rise buildings was widespread. With the development of Art Nouveau, there were several directions in it, though some characterize them as separate styles in architecture.
It is neo-romanticism with the restoration of Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance habits, neoclassicism, rationalism with ordinary forms. Its opposite is irrationalism, a brick style associated with the rejection of plaster. Northern Art Nouveau, also known as National Romanticism, was formed in Scandinavia.
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In the 1920s, emerged a new style in architecture - constructivism. Thus appeared the art of production. The main materials - concrete and reinforced concrete.
Architects designed not only industrial buildings but also residential buildings, clubs, cultural buildings. On the scale of late constructivism appeared multifunctional way, according to which was a scientific test of the multifunctional purpose of buildings. And the actual tasks were combined with artistic.
In the late 1940s, the minimalist construction style began to develop, the slogan of which was "nothing superfluous". The greatest spread it received in the 1960s. In the premises of this style components of the decor, decorations, and other "excesses" are reduced to a minimum. There comes the search for perfect proportions, the latest color combinations. The exterior is dominated by high-quality steel and other alloys, curved forms. At that time, a lot of time is given to functionality.
In the late 1970s, it was replaced by the high-tech style and firmly entrenched in modern architecture. The architecture of that time can be called the high-tech style that defines the life
of modern man. Its slogan is: "A house is a machine for living. Ascetic design with large integral forms, the widespread introduction of alloy and glass, ultramodern systems and technologies - this style of high-tech. The idealization of progressive technology, the search for solutions to the problems of combining energy and resources is inextricably linked with the close connection in the life of a man of technology. There are three main trends within the direction of high-tech - industrial, geometric and bionic high-tech.
The round shape of the building symbolizes the "360 degrees of great service. Buildings in the style of industrial high-tech are characterized by the removal of parts of the communications on the facade of the building - stairs, elevators. Geometric hi-tech is associated with a complex frame system with the introduction of the freshest parts of structures.
Bionic hi-tech is the introduction of forms of wildlife in architecture. Membrane slabs, hinged assemblies, and elastic threads have become components of buildings. The possibilities of the high-tech style are energy-generating buildings, mobile buildings.
In the 1980s, in contrast to constructivism was observed fresh style in architecture deconstruction architecture, which is characterized by broken forms, visual complexity, aggressiveness. The main adepts are Jacques Derrida, Peter Eisenman, Daniel Libeskind.
In the 1990s there was a fresh trend in architecture - the techno style, which from time to time is assessed as a trend of high-tech. Typical of the techno style is the grotesque image of ubiquitous technological. Buildings are transparent, glass walls bend in a complex curve. Communications components are placed behind the wall. Pipes work as a typical component of the decor.
The exterior in techno style looks more like a factory shop, warehouse, hangar, and not a residential building. Cabinets resemble safes and industrial containers. The amorphous armchairs resemble accidentally forgotten bags, and the legs of the furniture resemble tripods. The walls have a rough texture. The main colors of the furniture are gray, dark, khaki, and red. The main materials are glass, alloy, plastic. Widely used perforated and scalloped sheet metal. Techno style - a challenge to the classic comfort and harmony.
Another trend in architecture is called "kitsch. Translated from German, it means cheap, tasteless. This trend is characterized by garish style, pseudo-historical architecture, unsophisticated imitation. In a sense, it is a parody of existing styles. Its main task is the desire to stand out and demonstrate its uniqueness. The fashion for kitsch arose at a time when the old styles were bored, and they have not yet been replaced by others.
Modern styles of architecture are characterized by aggressiveness, which is expressed in complex technology, piling of uniform elements, the use of synthetic building materials, dark colors. Modern architectural styles are constantly improving, creating new trends.
Are you constantly fascinated by the curves, shape, and body of architecture? Are you imagining what the designer was trying to convey through the structure he created? So maybe the study of architecture is what your essence aspires to. The educational aspect of a career as an architect requires constant learning. A lot of design, calculations will be required during your studies. Perhaps feedback
from other students can help you. Starting to work on a new idea an architect is full of enthusiasm and inspiration, but when it comes to detailed design, things can turn into a tedious chore. Almost any architectural project is unique and fascinating. An architect's career can develop in absolutely any direction, but it requires constant work on oneself to be successful.